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Systematic deformation measurements under the invert in swelling rock reveal the mechanism of the swelling. Both, heave of the floor and strain profiles, were determined, the latter by using the Sliding Micrometer. In several important tunnels observations go back to over 10 years showing the time effect. Different types of the design of the invert respond differently to the swelling process going on in the rock mass. Case histories illustrate this finding. For the design of tunnels in swelling rock a numerical simualtion with a hydraulic-mechanical coupled model is proposed.
Authors:Kovári, Kalman and Amstad, Christian and Anagnostou, Georgios
Index Terms:rock; TunnelingGroup; Amstad, Christian; Anagnostou, Georgios; Kovari, Kalman
Further Information:Date published: 1995