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Water can affect the stability and the deformations of a tunnel by reducing the effective stress and thus the resistance to shearing, and by generating seepage forces towards the excavation boundary. The seepage-flow may lead to a draw-down of the water-level and to time-dependent subsidence due to consolidation. Furthermore, when tunnelling in soft ground, the seepage forces acting towards the tunnel face may impair its stability. Soil mechanical calculations represent an important design-aid as they provide valuable indications regarding the ground response to the tunnelling operation. Depending on the specific question, a limit equilibrium analysis, a numerical seepage-flow analysis, a stress analysis or a coupled stress-seepage-flow analysis has to be carried-out. The paper deals with the limitations, the range of applicability and the modelling assumptions of the various analysis types.
Index Terms:rock; TunnelingGroup; Anagnostou, Georgios
Further Information:Date published: 2002