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Two shallow tunnels in soft ground


The paper describes the design considerations and the experiences from the construction of two shallow motorway tunnels in Greece. The ground consists of stiff clays, clayey sands and silts. The hydrogeological conditions are complex. The tunnels are excavated full-face. The primary support consists of steel ribs and shotcrete. The final invert lining (reinforced concrete) is constructed close to the face. Tunnel excavation takes place under the protection of forepoling. The advance face is reinforced by fibreglass nails.


Anagnostou, Georgios

Index Terms:

rock; TunnelingGroup; Greece; Anagnostou, Georg

Further Information:

Date published: 2001