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History of the sprayed concrete lining method - part II: milestones up to the 1960s


In this part, first the origin and development of rock anchors are described. Their history began with a patent application in 1913 in Germany. The breakthrough in application came, however, only in the 1940s from the American mining industry. The first application of systematic rock bolting in a tunnel was the diversion tunnel for the Keyhole Dam in the USA in 1950. The paper describes numerous examples of civil engineering work world-wide with early application of rock bolting. It is shown how the combined application of the new support elements – steel arch, sprayed concrete and anchors has lead to the ‘sprayed concrete lining’ method in the 1950s. In concluding, it is demonstrated that the so called “New Austrian Tunnelling Method” (NATM), which has been propagated since 1963, is in many respects borrowed and has created much confusion amongst professional engineers by dint of its pseudo-scientific basis.


Kovári, Kalman

Index Terms:

rock; TunnelingGroup; NATM; Kovari, Kalman


available online at Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved

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Date published: 2003