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The beginning of tunnel engineering can be seen in the 1.1 km long Tronquoy Tunnel in France built in 1803. Here, for the first time, a large area of excavation in difficult ground conditions was realized. In the second half of the 19th century, the first attempts were undertaken to calculate the loading on the timber work and the permanent lining. Of special interest is the origin and development of the technology of steel linings, sprayed concrete linings and rock anchors. Technical innovations, a growing insight into the mode of action, as well as economic factors helped it to gain full acceptance as far back as the 1950s.
Index Terms:rock; TunnelingGroup; NATM; Kovari, Kalman
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Further Information:Date published: 2003