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To understand the mechanism of surface settlements and to control their development caused by tunneling operations systematic strain monitoring of the subsoil using precision instruments has been performed in Munich (Federal Republic of Germany) since 1980. Such measurements allow observation of the effects of ground water control and the different stages of excavation upon settlements. The measuring technique applied yields a complete distribution of the axial strain along boreholes showing the ground response layer by layer. Back calculations of overall field material parameters provide a valuable feedback for forthcoming design and construction procedure. The instrument used is the Sliding Micrometer-ISETH. Its brief description is followed by the discussion of typical measuring results obtained at several sections of the Munich Subway.
Authors:Amstad, Christian and Kovári, Kalman
Index Terms:Displacement measurements; monitoring; rock; TunnelingGroup; underground openings; tunneling
Further Information:Date published: 1984