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The first major step in controlling ground response by means other than timbering was the invention of the shield technique at the beginning of the 19th century. The full development of the conventional method of tunnelling today, namely the "SCL method", did not appear until the mid-1950s. Its scientific roots go back to the 19th century, but rock bolts and shotcrete were first applied in the 1910s. The paper traces the fascinating story of the developments in rock bolting and shotcreting and sheds light on their relation to the so-called NATM.
Index Terms:rock; NATM; SCL method; Control of Ground Response; TunnelingGroup; Kovari, Kalman
Further Information:Date published: 2001