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The concept of linewise observations is discussed and its advantages compared with pointwise measurements. The complete deformation of a line defined by points of the medium (concrete, soil, rock etc.) - is aimed at. As possible forms straight line and circle are considered. Various recently developed high precision instruments are presented all of them based on the principle of sphere and cone when setting into measuring position. Potentional applications are illustrated by examples from engineering practice.
Authors:Kovári, Kalman and Amstad, Christian
Index Terms:Displacement measurements; Instrumentation; monitoring; underground openings; tunneling; rock; TunnelingGroup
Further Information:Date published: 1980