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After a brief review of the factors governing the structural behavior of underground openings a survey is given of the type of structural problems encountered during the design and execution of tunnels. The use of deformation measurements during construction to assess safety and for a better understanding of the structural behavior is illustrated. Principles are formulated in order to establish adequate and efficient measuring programs for tunnels. The problems connected with the correct interpretation of the observations are also discussed. In the appendix some recently designed high precision instruments are described.
Authors:Kovári, Kalman and Amstad, Christian
Index Terms:Displacement measurements; Instrumentation; tunneling; underground openings; sliding micrometer; rock; TunnelingGroup; Amstad, Christian; Kovari, Kalman
Further Information:Date published: 1979