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The planned Gotthard Base Tunnel will cross the so-called Piora-syncline which may contain sections of running ground with lengths of up to 30 meters. The crossing of such weak zones at a depth of 1800 m with a water table exceeding 1500 m presents a challenge for tunneling. Tunnel excavation under these conditions is possible only after drainage and consolidation of the ground. The paper discusses possible design criteria and presents results of numerical studies concerning the necessary size and mechanical properties of the grouted zone. The performed feasibility studies show that the length of the critical geological zone as well as the deformations of the ground induced by the drainage and controlled material removal have a considerable effect on the deformations and stresses of the grouting cylinder
Authors:Kovári, Kalman and Anagnostou, Georgios
Index Terms:rock; TunnelingGroup; Anagnostou, Georges; Kovari, Kalman
Further Information:Date published: 1996