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Measuring The Forces in a Tunnel Lining due to Large Shear and Plastic DeformationsAbstract:The Integrated Measuring Technique enables the determination of the crosssectional forces in and the loads acting on a tunnel lining based on deformations measured at its intrados. The basic idea of the technique relies on inverting the procedure of beam analysis, well known in structural engineering. Here, in successive positions along the intrados of a lining, the changes in length of the chord and the rise for a base length of 50 cm are measured. From these values the state of deformation, expressed by axial strain, curvature and shear strain, may be determined. In the elastic case without shear forces purely kinematical considerations are sufficient, otherwise the stressstrain relation of the lining must also be taken into account. Based on the state of deformation and the constitutive equations, the crosssectional forces may be found and, together with equilibrium conditions, the external load may be backcalculated.
Authors:Fritz, PitIndex Terms:tunnel; lining; forces; pressure; rock; TunnelingGroup; analysisFurther Information:Date published: 1985 
